Aligarh , Hindi: अलीगढ़, Urdu: علی گڑھ) is a city in Aligarh Districtin the northern Indian state of Uttar Pradesh. The city is located about 90 miles (140 km) southeast of New Delhi. It is the administrative headquarters of Aligarh District, Aligarh Police Range and Aligarh Division, and has a population of half a million. It is mostly known as a university town where the famous Aligarh Muslim University is located. The Aligarh division
Aligarh was known by the earlier name of Kol or Koil before the 18th century. The name Kol covered not only the city but the entire district, though its geographical limits kept changing from time to time. The origin of the name is obscure. In some ancient texts, Kol has been referred to in the sense of a tribe or caste, name of a place or mountain and name of a sage or demon. From the study of the place-names of the district, it appears that the district was once fairly well covered by forest, thickets and groves. The early history of the district, through the 12th century AD is obscure. According to Edwin T. Atkinson, the name Kol was given to the city by Balarama, who slew here the great Asura (demon) Kol and with the assistance of the Ahirs subdued this part of the Doab. In another account, Atkinson points out a "legend" that Kol was founded by the Dor tribe of Rajputs in 372 AD. This could be further confirmed by an old fort, the Dor fortress, now in ruins, which lies at the city's centre.
Some time before the Muslim invasion, Kol was held by the Dor Rajputs and in the time of Mahmud of Ghazni the chief of the Dors was Hardatta of Baran. There is reason to believe that Kol was once the seat of a Buddhist community as statues of Buddha and other Buddhist remains have been found in excavations made in the eminence on which the citadel of Koil stood. It also had Hindu remains indicating that in all probability the citadel contained in succession a Buddhist and a Hindu temple.
In 1194 AD, Qutb-ud-din Aybak marched from Delhi to Koil which was "one of the most celebrated fortresses of Hind". Qutb-ud-din Aybak appointed Hisam-ud-din Ulbak as the first Muslim governor of Koil.
Koil is also mentioned in Ibn Battuta's Rihla, when Ibn Battuta along with 15 ambassadors representing Ukhaantu Khan, the Mongol Emperor of the Yuan dynasty in China, traveled to Koil city en route to the coast at Cambay (in Gujarat) in 1341. According to Ibn Battuta, it would appear that the district was then in a very disturbed state since the escort of the Emperor's embassy had to assist in relieving Jalali from an attacking body of Hindus and lost one of their officers in the fight. Ibn Batuta calls Koil "a fine town surrounded by mango groves". From these same groves the environs of Koil would appear to have acquired the name of Sabzabad or "the green country".
In the reign of Akbar, Koil was made a Sirkar and included the dasturs of Marahra, Kol ba Haveli, Thana Farida and Akbarabad. Both Akbarand Jahangir visited Kol on hunting expeditions. Jahangir clearly mentions the forest of Kol, where he killed wolves.
During the time of Ibrahim Lodhi, Muhammad, son of Umar was the governor of Kol, built a fort at Kol and named the city after his own name as Muhammadgarh in 1524-25; and Sabit Khan who was the governor of this region during the time of Farrukh Siyar and Muhammad Shah, rebuilt the old Lodi fort and named the town after his own name Sabitgarh. The ruler of Koil was Bargujar King Rao Bahadur Singh whose ancestors ruled it from AD 1184 after the marriage of Raja of Koil Ajit Singh's daughter to Raja Pratp Singh Bargujar. In early 1753, the Bargujar Chief rose against the destruction of Hindu temples. The Jat ruler Surajmal in 1753, with patronage from Jai Singh of Jaipur and the Muslim army occupied the fort of Koil, the Bargujar Raja Bahadur Singh continued the battle from another fort under them and died fighting in what is known as the "Battle of Ghasera". All the women committed Jauhar. It was re-named Ramgarh and finally, when a Shia commander,Najaf Khan, captured Kol, he gave it its present name of Aligarh. Aligarh Fort (also called Aligarh Qila), as it stands today, was built by French engineers under the control of French officers Benoît de Boigne and Perron.
In 1875, Sir Syed Ahmed Khan founded the Muhammadan Anglo Oriental College in Aligarh and patterned the college after Oxford and Cambridge universities that he had visited on a trip to England. This later becameAligarh Muslim University in 1920.
Aligarh is located at 27.88°N 78.08°E. It has an average elevation of 178 metres (587 feet). The city is situated in the middle portion ofDoab, or the land between the Ganges and Yamuna Rivers. The Grand Trunk Road passes through the city.
Climate chart (explanation)
As of the census of 2001, Aligarh had a population of 667,732. Males constitute 53% of the population and females 47%. Aligarh has an average literacy rate of 71%, higher than the national average of 65.4%; with 79% of the males and 61% of females literate. 16% of the population is under 6 years of age.
The main languages spoken in Aligarh are Hindi, English and Urdu. This is because the state Uttar Pradesh is a core of Hindi-Heartland.
The most spoken dialect of Hindi in Aligarh is Hindustani. Hindi is used more in the administrative fields.
Aligarh City is famous as an industrial city. It is also known as Taala Nagari (Locks City of India). The second Largest Lock Manufacturer of Locks in India Link Locks is based in the City. An approximation puts the total number of industries at 25,000 which constitute of both Small scale & Large Scale Industries. Aligarh is having a boom in the construction business at this point of time, many new multi level buildings, shopping complexes and apartments have come up. Many malls are recently being constructed by major developers from Delhi & Aligarh. Malls in the city include Great Shopping Mall at Ramghat Road, Many more are under construction like The Landmark Mall at Marris Road, Sharda Mall at Center Point, Ozone Mall at Ring Road, Great Value Mall at Ramghat Road.
There are many popular showrooms of several internationally known clothing and sports brands in Aligarh. Uttar Pradesh State Industrial Development Corporation (UPSIDC) has developed Taala Nagri Industrial Area at Ramghat Road.
There are three Industrial Areas like Industrial Estate, Pala Road and Taala Nagari. Ahlampur Industrial Area has been proposed by UPSIDC at Delhi G.T Road. Dakshinanchal Vidyut Vitran Nigam Ltd. provides unrestricted power at Taala Nagari.
Aligarh is amongst the largest manufacturers and suppliers of locks and hardware goods in India and is also one of the largest manufacturers of brass fittings. It also a manufacturer of plastic and iron toy pistols, handcuffs, belts, badges for schools and government supply. It also has an artware and sculpture products Industry. It supplies products all over the world. Brass market of Aligarh is one of the largest in India, which employs thousands of skilled laborers. About 100 tonnes of brass and 50 tonnes of zinc is processed daily. Iron, aluminum, bronze, and zinc products are also manufactured in the city.
Aligarh is also a bulk producer of zinc die cast parts by hot chamber die casting process. These products are consumed in low end domestic market. Consumption of Zinc alloy in Aligarh is more than the consumption of zinc alloy in rest of India. Made in Aligarh Zinc die cast parts can get broken after 2 to 4 years as Aligarh uses recycled zinc alloy, which contains lot of impurities, specially lead.
Aligarh also has automobile parts industries which supply their products in India and abroad. It has four fruit ripening plants which ripens/preserves fruits, dry fruits and vegetables.
Aligarh has always been an important business centre of Uttar Pradesh which is most famous for its locks industry. The locks that are produced in Aligarh are exported to different parts of the world. In 1870, Johnson & Co. was the first English locks firm to be set up in Aligarh. In 1890, Johnson & Co. initiated the manual production of locks on a small scale here.
Source : http://www.google.co.in/mapmaker